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[热词新语] 漫谈“龙”和dragon

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  • TA的每日心情
    难过
    2017-9-23 00:00
  • 签到天数: 1249 天

    [LV.10]译术家III

    发表于 2014-4-7 23:06 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    作者:王逢鑫
    “龙”在英语中的对应词是dragon。“龙”和dragon都是神话传说中想象或虚构的动物。
    1. The dragon is a legendary animal, similar to a huge lizard or snake, that appears in stories and art from all over the world. (Britannica Online Encyclopedia) 龙是一种传说动物,类似大型蜥蜴或蛇,出现在全世界的故事和艺术作品中。(《在线不列颠百科全书》)
    2. The dragon is a mythical animal that was revered in ancient times by all kinds of civilizations. It is an imaginary animal, which does not exist as a physical entity. The Chinese dragon is a fictitious animal long celebrated for its benevolence, intelligence and good will. 龙是一种在古代被所有文明崇敬的神话动物。它是一种想象的动物,并不作为一个实体而存在。中国龙是一种虚构的动物,久以仁慈、智慧和友善而闻名。
    但是,中国龙与西方龙有各自不同的历史渊源,代表了不同的文化传统。
    3. A dragon is a legendary creature, typically with serpentine or reptilian traits, that feature in the myths of many cultures. There are two distinct cultural traditions of dragons: the European dragon, derived from European folk traditions and ultimately related to Greek and Middle Eastern mythologies, and the Chinese dragon, with counterparts in Japan, Korea and other East Asian countries. (Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia) 龙是一种传说动物,明显具有蛇类或者说爬行类动物的特征,在许多文化的神话中占有重要地位。龙有两种截然不同的文化传统:其一是欧洲龙,源自欧洲民俗传统,而最终与希腊和中东神话相关;其二是中国龙,以及日本、朝鲜和其他东亚国家的龙。(《维基百科,自由的百科全书》)
    东方和西方对龙的体型和外观的描述是大相径庭的。
    4.龙是我国古代传说中的神异动物,身体长,有鳞,有角,有脚,能走,能飞,能游泳,能兴云降雨。(《现代汉语词典》) The dragon was a miraculous animal in ancient Chinese traditional legends, with a long body, scales, horns and feet, which could walk, fly, swim and gather clouds to pour down rain.
    5. The dragon is a large aggressive animal with wings and a long tail, that can breathe out fire. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 7th edition) 龙是一种大型的好斗的动物,有翼和长尾巴,能吐火。(《牛津高阶英语词典》第7版)
    龙在西方仅仅是一种传说动物,并不具有太多的文化内涵(cultural connotation)和联想意义(associative meaning)。《牛津高阶英语词典》告诉我们,dragon另有一个意思是a woman who behaves in an aggressive and frightening way, 即“行事气势汹汹和令人恐惧的女人”,相当于汉语的“悍妇”、“泼妇”、“母夜叉”或“母老虎”。有趣的是,描述这样的女人,英语用的是“龙”,汉语用的是“母老虎”,都以强势动物作比喻,都是表示女性,都带有贬义,例如:
    6. She looks like an ordinary old lady, but in fact she is a dragon who will eat you alive. 她看上去像个平常老太太,可事实上她是个能把你生吃的母老虎。
    7. She is a dragon who is nice but has an explosive temper, and when angry she might just hit you. 她是个可爱但脾气火爆的母老虎,一旦生气就会攻击你。
    英语有个成语 to sow dragon's teeth,源自希腊神话。
    8. The Greek Cadmus fought a terrible battle against the powerful dragon. The dragon used every possible trick, and the brave warrior fought valiantly. Finally, Cadmus killed the dragon, and on the advice of the goddess Athena, ploughed a field and sowed the dragon's teeth. A regiment of fully armed fighting men sprang from the ground, charged, and turned on each other until all but five were killed. 希腊的卡德摩斯与这条巨龙展开了殊死搏斗。这条龙使尽各种可能的招数,而这位勇敢的武士奋勇战斗。最后,卡德摩斯杀死了巨龙,然后依照女神雅典娜的建议,犁出一片地,种下龙牙。一队全副武装的战士从地里跳出来,向前猛冲,相互厮杀,直至剩下五人。
    to sow dragon's teeth(“种龙牙”)这个来自希腊神话的典故,已成为英语成语。
    9. The phrase “to sow dragon's teeth” is used as a metaphor to refer to doing something that has the effect of fermenting disputes. 词组to sow dragon's teeth 用作隐喻,指做具有挑起争端后果的事情。
    10. Wherever he went, he sowed dragon's teeth by preaching racial segregation. 他无论去到哪里,都借助鼓吹种族隔离,挑起争端。
    德国诗人海涅有过“撒播龙种,收获跳蚤”的诗句,马克思也曾引述过海涅的说法。这种描述表明“付出极大努力,却获得令人失望的结果”,例如:
    11. I have sown dragon seeds and have reaped/ harvested fleas. 我播撒的是龙种,收获的却是跳蚤。
    然而,龙在中国文化中却占有极其重要的地位,具有丰富的文化内涵。
    12. 在中国,龙被看作是文化图腾和民族形象。龙的形成记录了中华民族的发展与聚合过程。中国人常常以龙的传人而自豪。中华大地到处可以看见“龙”的标识,从划龙舟、舞龙灯、龙的绘画、龙的雕刻到龙的旗帜等。 In China, the dragon is considered as a cultural totem and a national image. The formation of the dragon recorded the process of the development and integration of the Chinese nation. The Chinese are often proud of being the descendants of the dragon. Throughout China can be seen the logo of the dragon, ranging from a dragon boat race, a dragon lantern dance, paintings of dragons, sculptures of dragons, to flags and banners of dragons.
    中国龙象征皇权、吉祥和威势,西方人早已向西方介绍。一百多年前,加拿大传教士Donald MacGillivray(季理斐)在其编纂的汉英词典 A Mandarin-Romanized Dictionary of Chinese with Supplement of New Terms and Phrases, now current (《英华成语合璧字集》)中就收录了许多关于“龙”的词条,例如:龙(the dragon, imperial)、龙爪(dragon’s claw, the emperor’s hands)、龙睛虎目(fierce looking)、龙床(the imperial bed)、龙凤呈祥(very auspicious)、龙行虎步(majestic movements)、龙衣(imperial robes)、龙鳞(the dragon’s scales)、龙门(gate of examination hall)、龙脉(the dragon’s pulse)、龙女(a wonderful daughter)、龙袍(imperial robe)、龙蛇混杂(dragons and snakes mixing promiscuously)、龙生龙(like produces like)、龙头拐杖(a staff with dragon’s head)、龙子龙孙(wonderful children)、龙王(dragon king, god of rain)、龙位(the imperial throne)、龙涎(the dragon’s spittle)、龙颜大悦(the imperial face showed much joy)等。
    1922年,出生在新西兰的英国人E.T.C. Werner(倭纳)出版了Myths & Legends of China(《中国的神话与传说》),记载了许多关于龙的故事。
    文身或刺青,本是一种古老的文化习俗。宋朝梁山好汉史进的绰号是“九纹龙”,可见以龙为图案文身在我国有久远历史。近年来,一些欧美人突破禁忌,接受文身。dragon tattoo(龙文身)作为一种形象或图案,在影响着人们的生活。此外,西方国家出现了许多以dragon为题材的影视作品、奇幻小说、动漫和网络游戏,尤其受到青年人的青睐。随之出现了一批与dragon相关的词汇,例如:dragon breeder(繁殖龙的人), to breed a dragon(繁殖龙),dragon keeper(养龙人),to raise and keep a dragon(蓄养龙), to train/ tame a dragon(驯龙), dragon trainer/ tamer(驯龙师), to kill/ slay/ slaughter a dragon(屠龙), dragon slaughterer(屠龙者)。
    其实,中国人是最早的玩龙行家。《庄子》记载了一位屠龙者的故事。
    13. 朱泙漫学屠龙于支离益,单千金之家。三年技成,而无所用其巧。(《庄子·列御寇》) Zhu Pingman learned how to slaughter a dragon from Zhi Liyi, exhausting all his property. After three years of apprenticeship, he mastered the art of dragon-slaughtering but found it of no use. (From Lieyukou, Zhuangzi)


  • TA的每日心情
    无聊
    2015-12-13 14:57
  • 签到天数: 540 天

    [LV.9]译术家II

    发表于 2014-4-11 08:03 | 显示全部楼层
    记得好些童鞋毕业论文写的就是动物英文习语类,大路边上的……

    本科生写啥论文呀……研究生有空研究吗?……博士candidate资质如何?真是为了做研究读博吗?赌博呀
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