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[行业人物] 关于杨宪益先生

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  • TA的每日心情
    奋斗
    2017-11-21 20:51
  • 签到天数: 1303 天

    [LV.10]译术家III

    发表于 2014-4-10 09:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    本帖最后由 南国烽烟 于 2014-4-10 09:27 编辑

    作者: 阮一峰

    我读大学的时候,最佩服两位翻译家,一位(对)就是杨宪益、戴乃迭夫妇,另一位是沙博理先生。

    我记得,好像有一个统计,从1949年到80年代中期,我国译成英语的文学作品,有一半以上出自杨宪益和戴乃迭,其中尤以《红楼梦》的英译本最为著名。当今世界共有两种《红楼梦》的英文全译本,可惜的是,两位译者都在今年去世了。(另一位是英国汉学家David Hawkes,于7月31日病逝。)

    得知杨先生去世后,我就想写一些纪念文字,但是不知道怎么写。先生的学问和英语水平,不是我有能力评论的。如果我写的话,肯定是主要写一些政治事件。将政治凸显成一位大学者人生中第一位的内容,这样是否合适呢?......好在后来,我看到了杨先生的一段谈话,这才感到有点放心了。


    杨先生说:

    谈文化重建问题不如谈政治改革问题。因为没有政治改革的话谈不上文化重建。我认为像粱漱溟先生也好,冯友兰先生也好,或者是吴宓先生也好,哪一位如果说是关了门出了什么灵丹妙药就可以把文化重建----几分是儒家,几分是西方思想----就能解决文化重建的问题,我认为是一种幻想。我觉得只要是有一个开明的政治,自然的文化就会重建。至于说旧的东西保留多少,吸取多少,外面的东西拿进来多少,这个问题到时候就会解决。


    是啊,中国的问题说到底就是政治问题。政治不解决,其他问题都解决不了。既然如此,我们这一代人就先从政治角度看待杨先生,让未来的人们再从文化和学术角度去评价。


    杨宪益的一生,是非常矛盾的一生。他的背景和气质,与他的祖国格格不入,更接近于西方人,可是他却一门心思要和他的祖国融为一体,结果命运同他开尽了玩笑。


    他出生豪门,却向往革命,终生支持社会主义运动;他留学英国,衣食无忧,却在抗日战争最低潮的1940年毅然回国;他娶了一个英国女孩,要求对方完全中国化,可是这桩婚姻在文革中却成了间谍罪的证据,导致他入狱四年;他对英语并无特别兴趣,却成为举世闻名的大翻译家;他喜爱文学,可是翻译的不少文学作品却没有文学价值,完全是因为上级的命令;他不喜欢《红楼梦》,却把这本书全部译成了英文;他是一个优秀的学者,却没有留下自己的作品,终生为他人的文字做嫁衣裳;他从不在乎生死,文革中公然说"枪毙我也无所谓",却活到了九十五岁的高寿。这就是杨宪益,一个20世纪中国知识分子普通却不平凡的一生。

    想了解杨宪益先生的一生,一定要读他在九十年代出版的英文自传《白虎星照命》(White Tiger)。

    国内曾经出版过中译本,名字为《漏船载酒忆当年》,点击这里下载。

    可是,这个译本是一个节译本,凡是与政治有关的敏感内容都删除了。

    杨宪益先生在上世纪末的某一年春夏之交,曾经是个风云人物。他在那一年的经历,是不能被忘记的,这是他晚年的大事,也是他气节的体现。


    请看这一段:

    将近年底时,形势稍微平静了一点儿,党突然宣布它的决定:所有党员必须重新登记,同时每人要写一份关于"xxx事件"的表现的总结进行自我批评。

    既然我不承认自己有任何过错,况且,我仍然谴责那些应对这起悲剧事件负责的掌权者,我决定,我不参加这个"党员重新登记"。因此,我写了一个纸条给党书记说,我的认识仍然和以前相同,所以我要求退党。

    党书记对我说,他们认为我犯了一个很严重的错误,如果我悔改的话,他们可以考虑从宽处理我。可既然我这样决定,那他们就不得不召开会议将我开除出党。

    于是,这个党内会议召开了,支部全体成员到会,总共只有十二人。出席者中有一半人认为我的所作所为应该受到批评。他们并没有试图说服我说"xxxxx是正当的",也没有说"xxxxx没有死一个人",他们只是批评我说,作为一个党员不应该反对党的决定,特别是对外国记者发表谈话,引起了那么大的国际影响,违反了党的纪律,他们还批评我,不应该把党和北洋军阀以及残暴的日本侵略者相比,参加会议的另一半党员保持沉默。接着他们开始表决:同意开除我的人举手。经过短暂的犹豫后,所有的人都举了手。然后,他们要求我发言表态是坚持自己的观点还是表示悔悟。我只是简短地表示我服从他们的决定,会议就结束了。


    还有更火爆的(恕我不译成中文):

    Running from trouble does not particularly suit my character. But because many people in China and abroad had heard my angry denunciations through the radio, my friends and relatives began to worry about my safety in case the government would come to settle accounts with me. In those early days after the massacre, many people who voiced support for the students and denounced the fovernment were arrested and taken away to prison. People said that those who got arrested were usually brutally beaten and some were even killed. One heard all sorts of stories. It is inpossible to tell which ones were true or exaggerated. Anyway many people disappeared during that period. Some may have gone into hiding while others might have arrested or killed. For over a week Beijing became a ghost city under the reign of white terror.

    One evening when Gladys and I were just chatting with a neighbour, an American expert, an old friend of mine who worked in the Foreign Languages Bureau but in a different section, suddenly sent his maid over with a note. The note said that he had heard from reliable sources that the security police might come and arrest me -- either that evening or the next. In those days we heard that most people arrested were taken away at night, after ten o'clock, so that it would not cause any commotion. He suggested that I should go into hiding at once. He would send someone to fetch me at the corner of the street, and I should leave immediately, taking no luggage at all, so that it would not arouse suspicion at the bureau.

    I then called Gladys to come out of the sitting room and whispered to her the content of the message. I told her not to worry, that I would come back in a few days, and there would be people passing news of my whereabouts to her. Then I left. I was met by that friend's son at the corner of the main street. It was getting dark and had started raining a bit, but there still some old people on the roadside chatting about the recent events. My friend's son made me sit on the back of his bicycle and took me to his house. I was given a room to stay in and told not to come out. They looked after me very well for two nights and told me the news they heard from outside.

    In those days, there were still sounds of sporadic shooting at night. Then they heard there had been soldiers searching a peasants' hotel nearby and some people there were arrested or shot. They decided it was not safe for me to stay in that district. I must leave beijing, either to hide myself in another city or get a false passport and get out of China. I told them that I had no intention of leaving China, and certainly not with a false passport. They insisted that I must not go home for the time being. So I said I would take a trip to Changchun in the north-east to see my daughter Zhi, who had just had a new baby, and they agreed. My friend then got me a the train ticket and arranged to have a young man escort me to see that I arrived safely. They even advised me to wear dark glasses and a cap to disguise myself.

    The journey went without mishap. I did not wear the cap nor the dark glasses. During that period the train authorities did have to check up on a passenger's identity so I showed them my PPCC card with my name and photograph and the examined it, but nothing happened.


    看了这些片段,你是不是对这本自传,充满了向往?好消息是,雷音女士在香港出版的《杨宪益传》,完整地引用了这本自传的所有内容。

    下载地址(exe格式,1133KB)。

    ====================================

    附录

    杨宪益和戴乃迭翻译作品清单(不完全统计)

    一.古典文学

    离骚(1953年初版)

    唐代传奇(1954年初版)

    儒林外史(1954年初版)

    长生殿(1955年初版)

    古代寓言(1957年初版)

    宋明平话选(1957年初版)

    汉魏六朝小说选(1958年初版)

    关汉卿杂剧选(1958年初版)

    红楼梦

    二.鲁迅著作

    阿Q正传(1953年初版)

    鲁迅短篇小说选(1954年初版)

    鲁迅选集(第一卷)(1956年初版)

    鲁迅选集(第二卷)(1957年初版)

    鲁迅选集(第三卷)(1959年初版)

    鲁迅选集(第四卷)(1961年初版)

    中国小说史略(1959年初版)

    鲁迅小说选(1960年初版)

    三.现代文学(部分)

    王贵与李香香(李季著,1951年初版)

    太阳照在桑干河上(丁玲著,1953年初版)

    白毛女(贺敬之,丁毅著,1953年初版)

    阿诗玛(1955年初版)

    三里湾(赵树理著,1957年初版)

    李家庄的变迁(赵树理著,50年代出版)

    青春之歌(杨沫著,50年代出版)

    暴风骤雨(周立波著,50年代出版)

    风云初记(孙犁著,50年代出版)

    原动力(草明著,50年代出版)

    朱自清散文(1958年)

    下一次开船港(严文井著,1958年)

    红旗谱(梁斌著,1959年)

    百合花(茹志鹃著,1959年)

    荷花淀(孙犁著,1959年)

    四.其他

    白蛇传(京剧)

    打渔杀家(京剧)

    柳荫记(京剧)

    秦香莲(京剧)

    搜书院(越剧)

    十五贯(昆曲)

    中印文化交流史(金克木著)

    中国文学简史(冯沅君陆侃如著)

    五. 中译作品

    [古希腊]阿里斯托芬《鸟》

    [古罗马]普劳图斯《凶宅》

    肖伯纳《卖花女》

    肖伯纳《凯撒与克里奥佩特拉》

    肖伯纳《匹克梅梁》

    [古罗马]维吉尔《牧歌》

    荷马史诗《奥德修记》

    法国《罗兰之歌》

    资料来源:雷音《杨宪益传》。根据该书,杨宪益称,这些工作只是他全部工作总量的几十分之一。

    (完)



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