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[热词新语] 从“阶梯电价”说起

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    2017-9-19 08:53
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    [LV.10]译术家III

    发表于 2014-4-12 00:06 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    文/王逢鑫
    我国许多地区正在试行阶梯电价。阶梯电价的全称是“阶梯式累进电价”,英语有多种表示方法,包括step tariff, multi-step tariff, multi-tier step tariff;我国媒体用graduated power tariff的译法,例如:
    1. Using a step tariff means the more you buy in a calendar month the more you will pay per unit. 使用阶梯电价意味着你在一个月历月内买电越多,每个单位的电就花钱越多。
    2. A multi-tier step tariff system monitors the monthly consumption of the consumer and charges him using the appropriate tariff. 阶梯电价制度监测消费者每月的消费量,并以适当电价向其收费。
    3. China will expand a graduated power tariff system for residential users, now being tried out in several selected provinces. 中国将对居民用户推广目前正在若干试点省份试行的阶梯电价制度。
    人类为了攀登到高处,发明了各式各样辅助登高的阶梯,包括上山、上楼或上桥的石阶,以及可以移动的梯子、附属于建筑物的楼梯和可以升降的电梯。
    “台阶”是step,“一段台阶”是a flight of steps,“石阶”是 stone stairs。
    古代人想上天,有了“天梯”的幻想,常常出现在童话故事里,英语可以译为 heavenly ladder。
    活动的阶梯,最原始的是“梯子”,英语是ladder。现在出现了不同形状、不同材料和不同功能的梯子。“家用梯子”是household ladder;“直梯”是single ladder或direct ladder;“人字梯”是stepladder;“折叠梯”是foldable ladder或folding ladder;“伸缩梯”是extension ladder或telescopic ladder;“绳梯”是rope ladder或flexible ladder;“索梯”是jack ladder;“悬梯”是hanging ladder;“便携式梯子”是portable ladder;“绝缘梯”是insulated ladder;“多功能梯子”是multipurpose ladder。梯子的组成部分包括“底座”或“梯座”(ladder cleat, ladder foothold或ladder cup),以及“横档”(step 或rung)。
    与梯子相关的动作有:“搬梯子”(to move the ladder);“架梯子”(to put up / place / lean / rest / set / stand / lay the ladder);“放倒梯子”(to put down / let down the ladder);“爬梯子”(to go up / step up / mount / climb / climb up / ascend the ladder);“下梯子”(to go down / step down / descend the ladder)和“跌下梯子”(to fall from / off the ladder)。
    楼梯是固定在建筑物上的阶梯,英语可以译为stairs, staircase 或 stairway,“一段楼梯”是 a flight of stairs
    与上楼和下楼相关的动作有:“上楼”(to go / come upstairs);“跑上楼”(to run / rush / dash / hurry upstairs);“下楼”(to go / come downstairs);“跑下楼”(to run / rush / dash / hurry downstairs);“上楼梯”(to take / go up / come up / mount / climb / ascend the stairs, to take / go up / come up / mount / climb / ascend the staircase);“跑上楼梯”(to run / hurry up the stairs, to run / hurry up the staircase);“咯噔咯噔地上楼”(to clatter up the stairs);“下楼梯”(to go down / come down / descend the stairs, to go down / come down / descend the staircase);“跑下楼梯”(to run / hurry down the stairs, to run / hurry down the staircase);“咯噔咯噔地下楼”(to clatter down the stairs);“摔下楼梯”(to fall / stumble / tumble down the stairs)。
    电梯是活动的阶梯,英国英语是lift,而美国英语是elevator。“上升的电梯”是ascending lift;“下降的电梯”是descending lift;“载客电梯”是passenger lift;“载货电梯”是freight lift, goods lift或cargo lift;“客货两用电梯”是passenger-and-freight lift或passenger-goods lift;“观光电梯”是panoramic lift或observation lift;“医用电梯”是bed lift;“杂物电梯”是dumbwaiter lift;“船用电梯”是lift on ships;“自动扶梯”是moving staircase或escalator;“上行的自动扶梯”是 ascending lift / escalator;“下行的自动扶梯”是 descending lift / escalator;“自动人行道”是moving walk,moving walkway,moving sidewalk,autowalk, travelator / travolator,passenger conveyer/conveyor。例句如下:
    4. Do not use this lift as a means of escape in the event of fire. 遇火警时,请勿使用此处电梯作为逃生手段。
    与电梯相关的动作有:“等电梯”(to wait for the lift);“乘电梯”(to take the lift);“上电梯”(to get into the lift);“下电梯”(to go out of the lift, to get off the lift, to emerge from the lift);“乘电梯上楼”(to go / come up in the lift);“乘电梯下楼”(to go / come down in the lift);“卡在电梯里”(to get stuck / stranded in the lift);“登上自动电梯”(to mount the escalator);“乘自动电梯上行”(to go up / ride up / ascend the escalator);“乘自动电梯下行”(to go down / ride down / descend the escalator);“安装电梯”(to install a lift);“维修电梯”(to service a lift)。
    作为隐喻,“阶梯”的第一个特征是“分级性”(gradability),例如:
    5. The professor of economics is giving a lecture to the students in the terrace classroom. 这位经济学教授正在阶梯教室里给学生们讲课。
    作为隐喻,“阶梯”的第二个特征是“递进性”(progressiveness),例如:
    6. As the rock wall is very steep and the climb is difficult, we have to make our ascent step by step carefully. 由于攀岩墙非常陡峭,攀爬困难,我们得小心翼翼地一步一步攀登。
    作为隐喻,“阶梯”的第三个特征是“向上运动”(upward mobility)。俗话说“人往高处走,水往低处流”。人类正是有“向上攀爬”的梦想,才发奋努力,改善现状,不断前进。“阶梯”的比喻意思是“向上的凭借或途径”,英语可以译为ladder, stepping stone。汉语常用“飞黄腾达”、“青云直上”等成语比喻地位尤其是官职很快上升,英语则用to climb / ascend / go up / move up the social ladder表示社会地位的晋升,例如:
    7. Books are ladders for human progress. 书籍是人类进步的阶梯。
    传统上,英语用 ladder 比喻“攀爬社会阶梯”,现在有人用 rock wall(攀岩墙),显示在社会中攀登的艰难,例如:
    8. For decades American universities have been offering more of everything—more courses for undergraduates, more research students for professors and more rock walls for everybody—on the merry assumption that there would always be more money to pay for it all. 几十年来,美国的大学在各方面都提供更多的东西:为本科生提供更多的课程,为教授配备更多做研究的学生,为大家提供更多奋斗成才的机会——这一切都基于一种令人愉快的假设,即总会有更多的钱为这一切埋单。

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