设为首页收藏本站

译术论坛

 找回密码
 立即注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

扫一扫,访问微社区

查看: 394|回复: 3

[茶馆闲话] 与牙齿有关的隐喻

[复制链接]
  • TA的每日心情
    无聊
    2017-6-29 10:02
  • 签到天数: 1164 天

    [LV.10]译术家III

    发表于 2014-4-16 00:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    文/王逢鑫
    不同的语言都不约而同地利用牙齿构成了许多身体隐喻。随着年龄的变化,牙齿也在改变。 wisdom teeth指人类心智已经趋于成熟时才长出的“智齿”。to cut one’s wisdom teeth 的字面意思是“长出智齿”,比喻意思是 to gain worldly wisdom and common sense as one gets older, 即“长大成人”,例如:
    1. Now that Mike has cut his wisdom teeth, he is not so naive as he was. 由于迈克已经长大成人,他不再像以前那样幼稚。
    to teethe 的意思是 to begin to grow teeth,指婴儿“开始长牙”。teething troubles 或 teething problems 的字面意思指“婴儿在长牙期遇到的问题”;其比喻意义是difficulties in the early development of a new undertaking or invention, 即“新事业或新发明在发展初期遇到的问题”,例如:
    2. There were plenty of teething troubles when jet planes were being developed, but now they are very reliable. 喷气式飞机开发初期遇到许多问题,但是现在这种飞机已非常可靠了。
    long in the tooth 原指相马者发现老马因齿龈萎缩而使牙齿显得很长,例如:
    3. You can judge a horse’s age by examining its teeth. 你可以通过检查马的牙来判断其岁数。
    long in the tooth 的比喻意义是 rather elderly,常指人“年迈”或“年老”;有时也可以指汽车或故事“古老”,例如:
    4. The old man is a bit long in the tooth to be wearing jeans. 这个老人现在穿牛仔裤,年纪有点儿大了。
    5. I am afraid your story is long in the tooth. 恐怕你的故事有点儿老掉牙了。
    人类模仿牙齿的形状发明制造了一些齿形的物件。这是根据仿生学的原理。相传,工匠的祖师爷鲁班被叶子边缘的齿形部分划伤而受到启示,后来发明了锯。汉语的“齿”字,即英语的 tooth / teeth,是某些物体上齿形部分(tooth-like part of an object)的命名理据。“轮齿”是tooth / teeth of a cogwheel, tooth/teeth of a gear;“钻头齿”是tooth / teeth of a bit;“锯齿”是tooth / teeth of a saw;“梳齿”是tooth / teeth of a comb;“叶齿”是tooth / teeth of a leaf。
    6. The botanist found the teeth of the leaf were serrated. 这位植物学家发现这种叶片呈锯齿状。
    牙齿的第一个功能是“咀嚼食物”,与口味或口感相关。英语的 tooth / teeth 组成的短语与喜不喜欢吃某种食物有关。to have a sweet tooth 的意思是to enjoy eating sweets,即“喜欢甜食”。
    牙齿的第二个功能是“辅助发音”,与说话和发出声音相关。英语的 to lie in / through one’s teeth 的意思是to tell a barefaced lie,即“撒弥天大谎”,例如:
    7. He lied in his teeth when he said he was a scientist. 当他说自己是个科学家时,他是撒弥天大谎。
    牙齿的第三个功能是“表达情绪或情感”,to grind / grate one’s teeth 的意思是“磨牙”,经常与疼痛(pain)、紧张(stress)、懊丧(frustration)、惶恐不安(nervousness)、疯狂(madness)或愤怒(fury)相关,例如:
    8. Some animals will grind their teeth in response to pain. 有些动物对疼痛做出反应时会磨牙。
    to gnash one’s teeth 的意思是 to feel very angry and upset about sth,即“气得咬牙切齿”,例如:
    9. He’ll be gnashing his teeth when he hears that we lost the contract. 他要是听说我们丟了这份合同会气得咬牙切齿。
    to grit / clench / set one’s teeth 的字面意思是 to bite one’s teeth tightly together,即“咬紧牙关”。其比喻意义是 to be determined to continue to do sth. in a different or unpleasant situation,即“下定决心”、“鼓起勇气”,例如:
    10. She gritted her teeth against the pain. 她咬紧牙关,忍住疼痛。
    11. He set his teeth and prepared to fight it out. 他下定决心,准备战斗到底。
    through clenched teeth 的意思是 opening one’s mouth only a little because of anger,即“因愤怒而咬紧牙关”,例如:
    12. I swear through clenched teeth that I will never step into his house again. 我咬牙发誓永不登他家门。
    to set sb.’s teeth on edge 的意思是(of a taste, sight or sound)to make sb. feel physically uncomfortable,即(味道、景象或声音)“使不舒服”或“使难受”,例如:
    13. The lemon juice set his teeth on edge. 柠檬汁使他的牙齿很难受。
    14. The sight of that man eating with his hands set my teeth on edge.看见这个人用手抓饭吃,我感到很不舒服。
    牙齿的第四个功能是“表现威力”,与对抗或战争相关。to show / bare one’s teeth 的字面意思是“露出牙齿”,其比喻意义是 to threaten,即“张牙舞爪”、“呲牙咧嘴”,与威胁(threat)或恫吓(menace)相关,例如:
    15. An angry dog shows its teeth before it bites. 发怒的狗在咬之前先露出牙齿。


  • TA的每日心情
    无聊
    2017-6-29 10:02
  • 签到天数: 1164 天

    [LV.10]译术家III

     楼主| 发表于 2014-4-16 00:24 | 显示全部楼层
    16. He growled and bared his teeth with menace. 他低声吼叫,恫吓地呲牙咧嘴。
    to fight tooth and nail 的意思是 to fight or argue fiercely,即“全力以赴争斗”,例如:
    17. It took three policemen to arrest the thief, who fought tooth and nail against them. 用了三名警察才逮住这个贼,那贼拼命跟他们争斗。
    to get one’s teeth into sth.的意思是 to put a lot of effort and enthusiasm into sth. that is difficult enough to keep you interested,即“全力以赴”,例如:
    18. I find Greek an extremely difficult language, but I am beginning to get my tooth into it. 我发现希腊语是极其难学的语言,但是我开始全力以赴学习了。
    to sink one’s teeth into sth.的字面意思是 to bite sth.,即“用牙咬”。其比喻意义是 to become fully engaged or completely involved in sth., particularly in an enthusiastic manner,即“全身投入”,例如:
    19. The cat sank its teeth into my finger. 这只猫用牙咬了我的手指。
    to take the bit between one’s teeth 的字面意思是“马嘴里咬着嚼子”。其比喻意义是 to reject control by others,to go one’s own way willfully,即“摆脱控制”或“自行其是”,例如:
    20. The child took the bit in his teeth and acted against his parents’ wishes. 这个孩子摆脱了控制,违背父母的意愿行事。
    to put teeth into sth.的意思是 to enforce sth., 即“实施”或“使生效”,例如:
    21. They have put teeth into the law about the protection of children’s rights.他们已实施这项保护儿童权利的法律。
    to have teeth 的字面意思是“有牙”。其比喻意义是 to be powerful and effective,即“有威力”或“有效力”,例如:
    22. The contract will always have teeth. 这个契约将永远有效。
    armed to the teeth 的意思是 armed from head to foot, 即“武装到牙齿”或“全副武装”。
    in the teeth of sth.(wind, storm, evidence, etc.)的意思是 against sth., in spite of problems, opposition, etc.,即“顶着”、“逆着”、“不管”、“不顾”,例如:
    23. They crossed the bay in the teeth of a howling gale. 他们顶着呼啸的狂风渡过了海湾。
    to kick sb. in the teeth 的字面意思是“踢某人的牙”。其比喻意义是 to treat sb. badly,即“整治”或“虐待”,例如:
    24. When a stinking bum on the street hassles me for money, I want to kick him in the teeth with my cowboy boots. 当一个臭流浪汉在大街上骚扰我向我要钱时,我真想用我的牛仔靴踢他的牙。
    回复 支持 反对

    使用道具 举报

  • TA的每日心情
    慵懒
    2014-5-16 19:43
  • 签到天数: 42 天

    [LV.5]翻译艺术I

    发表于 2014-4-16 08:45 | 显示全部楼层
    看到楼主每天都会发些这种类型的帖子,感觉很受益,想问问楼主都在看哪些翻译相关的书籍或材料呢?求推荐~
    回复 支持 反对

    使用道具 举报

  • TA的每日心情
    无聊
    2017-6-29 10:02
  • 签到天数: 1164 天

    [LV.10]译术家III

     楼主| 发表于 2014-4-16 14:55 | 显示全部楼层
    我看的书本论坛基本都有,这里下载的书足够用了,推荐你看MTI系列教材 http://www.all-terms.com/bbs/for ... 9&highlight=MTI
    回复 支持 反对

    使用道具 举报

    您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

    本版积分规则

    关闭

    译术精品推荐上一条 /9 下一条

    小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|译术网    

    GMT+8, 2017-6-29 18:54 , Processed in 0.281055 second(s), 29 queries .

    Powered by Discuz! X3.1

    © 2001-2015 Comsenz Inc.

    快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表