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[茶馆闲话] 人有多少fingers?

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  • TA的每日心情
    奋斗
    2017-11-21 20:51
  • 签到天数: 1303 天

    [LV.10]译术家III

    发表于 2014-4-19 00:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    文/王逢鑫
    英语的finger与汉语的手指,在语义上不完全对应,在文化上具有各自独特的内涵。中国人说十指连心,英语的finger在不同的词典上有不同的释义。Longman Dictionary of English Language & Culture 1998)对finger的释义是any of the five movable parts with joints at the end of each hand,与汉语相同,即每只手有五个手指Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 2000)的释义是one of the four long thin parts that stick out from the hand (or five, if the thumb is included),说法比较灵活,即一只手有四个手指,但如果包括拇指,就有五个手指Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 2001)的释义是one of the four long thin parts on your hand, not including your thumb,即大拇指以外的手指,或曰一只手有四个手指。上述三部词典出版时间相近,释义就有明显差异。查阅早些时候出版的词典,会有更多发现。The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English Third Edition, 1934)的释义是one of the five terminal members of hand (thumb, & index, middle, ring & little ff.) or four excluding thumb,告诉我们,一只手有五个手指,或者除去拇指有四个The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English 1948)的释义是There are five fingers (or four fingers and one thumb) on each hand,说的是每只手有五个fingers,或者四个fingers和一个拇指。关键在于thumb算不算是finger, 也就是说,fingers是否包括thumb

    汉语中,五个指头的英语对应词分别为:拇指(thumb)、食指(forefinger, index finger, first finger)、中指(middle finger, second finger)、无名指(ring finger, third finger)和小指(little finger, pinkie, pinky finger, pinky, fourth finger)。拇指,亦称一指食指,亦称二指,英语叫做first finger中指,亦称三指,英语叫做 second finger无名指,亦称四指,英语叫做third finger小指,亦称五指,英语叫做fourth finger。汉英两种语言使用序数词有差异,需要注意,例如:
    1. A gold ring worn on the ring finger by a man or woman usually shows he or she is married. 男人或女人在无名指上戴金戒指通常表明他或她已婚。
    2. You can use the thumb and the first two fingers of your right hand to represent three directions. 你可以用你右手的拇指、食指和中指表示三个方向。
    由于英语对一只手包括几个fingers有不同理解,我们在翻译时,要格外小心,例如:
    3. The basketball player used the thumb and fingers of his right hand to catch the ball. 这个篮球运动员用他右手的拇指和其他手指抓住球。



  • TA的每日心情
    奋斗
    2017-11-21 20:51
  • 签到天数: 1303 天

    [LV.10]译术家III

     楼主| 发表于 2014-4-19 00:10 | 显示全部楼层
    finger表手指灵活。英美人利用灵活的手指动作,可以做各种手势(gesture),构成肢体语言(body language)。这种非言语交流方式(non-verbal means of communication)表达独特的含义。我们需要注意其中的文化差异。
    to cross one’s fingers和to keep one’s fingers crossed,实际上分别是to have one’s index finger and middle finger crossed和to keep one’s index finger and middle finger crossed的动作,即“使食指和中指保持交叉的状态”。这个手势有点像十字架的形状,英美人认为这样做可以得到好运气。这两个习语的比喻意义是to hope that sth. will happen the way you want,即“祈求好运”或“希望万事如意”,例如:
    4. I am crossing my fingers that nothing untoward will happen to him. 我正在祈求不要有不幸的事降临到他身上。
    5. I’ll keep my fingers crossed for you. 我将为你祈求好运。
    6. Keep your fingers crossed for me while I make my driving test.请在我参加驾驶考试时祝我好运。
    美国习语to give sb. the (middle) finger的意思是to move the middle finger upwards in the direction of sb. with whom one is angry, in an extremely offensive way,即“向某人竖起中指,表示愤怒、轻蔑或恶意”,例如:
    7. Tom got 30 days in jail for giving Judge the finger. 汤姆因向法官竖中指而被判入狱30天。
    在英美人看来,“竖中指”是一种粗鲁的、侮辱人的动作。to flip/raise/show the middle finger等表示“竖中指”的习语都包含“侮辱人”的意思,例如:
    8. The football player raised the middle finger in protest against the referee for his unfair judgment. 这个足球运动员竖中指抗议裁判员的不公正裁决。
    英国习语to put/stick two fingers up at sb.或to give sb. the two fingers的意思是to express anger at sb. in a very rude way by holding up your index finger and middle finger in the shape of a “V” with your palm facing you,即“向某人竖起食指和中指,将手心向自己而将手背向某人做出 V 形手势,表示愤怒、轻蔑或恶意”,例如:
    9. She drove past and stuck two fingers up at her ex-boyfriend. 她将车一开而过,还向前男友竖起食指和中指。
    在不同的文化中,V 形手势具有不同的含义。我们若想使用这一手势,需要格外小心,例如:
    10. The V sign is a hand gesture in which the index and middle fingers are raised and parted, while the other fingers are folded or clenched. The V sign has various meanings, depending on the cultural context and how it is presented. It is most commonly used to represent the letter “V” as in “Victory”, for instance, in a setting of wartime or competition; as a symbol of peace (usually with palm outward); as an offensive gesture (palm inward); and to represent the number 2, which is a non-verbal communication of quantity. V形手势是将食指与中指一并举起,两指分开,同时收拢或攥紧其余三个指头的手势。V形手势具有不同的意思,取决于文化环境和如何呈现。它最常用来表示Victory(胜利)中的首字母V,例如,在战时或竞赛时;它还是“和平”的象征(通常是手心向外);或用作表示愤怒的手势(手心向自己);它还用来表示数字2,这是一种表示数量的非言语交流方式。
    11. The meaning of the V sign is partially dependent on the manner in which the hand is positioned. If the palm of the hand faces the signer (i.e., the back of the hand faces the observer), the sign is an insult. This usage is restricted largely to Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.With the back of the hand facing the signer (palm of the hand facing the observer), the V sign can mean “Victory”. It was first popularized by Winston Churchill. It is sometimes made using both hands with upraised arms as US President Eisenhower, and in imitation of him, Richard Nixon, used to do. It was adopted by the American peace movement as a sign for peace in the 1960s. V 形手势的意思部分取决于手的位置。如果手心对着做手势者(即手背对着观察手势者),这种手势是侮辱人的。这种用法主要限于澳大利亚、爱尔兰、新西兰、南非和英国。如果手背对着做手势者(即手心对着观察手势者),这种V 形手势可以表示“胜利”。这种手势最初是由温斯顿·丘吉尔普及开来的。有时候,用高举双臂,两手呈现V 形手势,就像美国前总统艾森豪威尔那样,以及理查德·尼克松模仿他经常做的手势。20世纪60年代,美国和平运动采用这个手势作为和平的象征。
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